Data-Intensive Science and Research IntegrityIn Chaps. In this chapter, I will shift gears and examine a topic that indirectly impacts human subjects but which is nevertheless very important: research integrity. Research integrity or responsible conduct of research, RCR has to do with following ethical and legal standards in the conduct of research Shamoo and Resnik These include rules pertaining to research with human and animals subjects as well as those concerning the conduct of science itself, such as norms for recording, reporting, analyzing, sharing, publishing and interpreting data; assigning authorship; disclosing and handling conflicts of interest; working with collaborators, students, and trainees; reviewing manuscripts and grants; managing financial and other resources; and investigating allegations of misconduct Shamoo and Resnik This chapter will consider some RCR issues which have an important bearing on research with human subjects.
Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR): The Importance of Ethics, Whistleblowing, and Mentoring
Responsible Conduct of Research
The references in the following list provide you with the opportunity to explore in more detail some of the topics introduced in this course. Bulger, R. Cambridge, U. Research Triangle Park, N. Chevy Chase, Md. D'Angelo, J.
This open-access issue of Accountability in Research is intended to serve as a special resource. There is little need to justify providing resources that can be useful in the instruction of scholarship in Responsible Conduct of Research RCR for readers of Accountability in Research. At present, there are no specific, detailed, line-by-line RCR requirements for institutions that apply for research grants from the U. For the past several years, I have given lectures on RCR at a number of academic institutions around the world, including RCR workshops in my own university. While there are many valuable resources available for use in RCR educational programs, including a number of excellent texts Beach, ; Committee on Assessing Integrity in Research Environments, ; Panel on Scientific Responsibility and the Conduct of Research, ; Panel on Scientific Responsibility and the Conduct of Research, ; Lock and Wells, ; Macrina, ; Resnik, ; Seebauer and Barry, ; Shamoo and Resnik, ; Steneck, , there is only one that specifically focused on the chemical community—the book The Ethical Chemist: Professionalism and Ethics in Science Kovac, More than coincidentally, this book was written by one of the authors of an article in this project.
Recent scandals and controversies—such as the falsification, fabrication, and plagiarism of data in federally funded science; the manipulation and distortion of research sponsored by private companies; human embryonic stem cell research; cloning; and the patenting of DNA and cell lines—illustrate the importance of ethics in scientific research. This book provides an introduction and overview of many of the social, ethical, and legal issues facing scientists today. The book includes chapters on research misconduct, conflicts of interest, data management, mentoring, authorship, peer review, publ The book includes chapters on research misconduct, conflicts of interest, data management, mentoring, authorship, peer review, publication, intellectual property, research with human subjects, research with animal subjects, genetic and stem cell research, international research, and ethical decision making. The book also features dozens of real and hypothetical cases for discussion and analysis and introduces the reader to important research regulations and guidelines.
In this commentary, we consider questions related to research integrity in data-intensive science and argue that there is no need to create a distinct category of misconduct that applies to deception related to processing, analyzing, or interpreting data. The best way to promote integrity in data-intensive science is to maintain a firm commitment to epistemological and ethical values, such as honesty, openness, transparency, and objectivity, which apply to all types of research, and to promote education, policy development, and scholarly debate concerning appropriate uses of statistics. The growing importance of data-intensive science a. Data-intensive science has been described as research in which the capture, curation, and analysis of large volumes of data is central to the scientific question. While efforts to handle such large quantities of data often challenge traditional approaches Hey et al , historians have pointed out that scientists have faced challenges in collecting and analyzing large volumes of data for centuries Laudan , Muller-Wille and Charmantier Nevertheless, contemporary data-intensive science is distinctive because it incorporates new computational methods and technologies and tends to involve large, interdisciplinary scientific teams Leonelli ; Strasser Data-intensive research now plays an important role in many disciplines, including particle physics, astronomy, cancer therapy, drug discovery, radiology, ecology, climatology, geology, molecular biology, molecular biology, systems biology, economics, and social science Elliott et al , Sugimoto et al
The term research ethics refers to the ethics of planning, conducting, and reporting research. Concerns with research ethics, and especially the prevention of research misconduct, have grown steadily over the past several decades. Although it can be difficult to derive accurate estimates of the frequency of research misconduct, many serious allegations of misconduct have been widely publicized in recent years, and a number of those allegations were confirmed by subsequent investigations. Research misconduct includes, but is not limited to, fabrication making up data or results , falsification changing or misreporting data or results , and plagiarism using the ideas or words of another person without giving appropriate credit. Research misconduct can cause many different kinds of harm , including:.
Contributors: Adil E. Shamoo - Author, David B. Resnik - Author. Publisher: Oxford University Press. Place of publication: New York. Publication year: