Childhood and society. ( edition) | Open LibraryBy Saul McLeod , updated Erikson maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order through eight stages of psychosocial development, from infancy to adulthood. During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development. For Erikson , , these crises are of a psychosocial nature because they involve psychological needs of the individual i. Failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced ability to complete further stages and therefore a more unhealthy personality and sense of self. These stages, however, can be resolved successfully at a later time. If the care the infant receives is consistent, predictable and reliable, they will develop a sense of trust which will carry with them to other relationships, and they will be able to feel secure even when threatened.
Childhood and Society Summary & Study Guide
Childhood and Society is a landmark study and theory of childhood development that attempts to combine the methodology of Freudian psychoanalysis and cultural anthropology in order to generate a psychology of child development. Erik Erikson - , a Danish-German-American psychologist and one of the most important psychologists of the twentieth century, wrote Childhood and Society in after extensive contact with Anna Freud, the daughter of Sigmund Freud, receiving training in psychoanalysis, observing Native American tribes from a psychological perspective and operating both a public and private practice. Erikson's focus on child development led him to develop eight psychosexual stages of child development, extending on Freud's original five stages. Erikson argues that each child must navigate these eight stages in order to fully develop. He also defends Freud's controversial notion of the genital stage in adolescence, where children become not only acquainted with their genitals, but do so under a psychological-symbolic aspect, one that represents control over their world. Erikson is well known for developing a detailed theory of ego psychology and argues that the ego serves to balance the Freudian Id and Superego rather than often being dominated by the Id.
Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Erikson, E. Childhood and society 2nd Ed. New York: Norton. ITT suggests that the salience of identity concerns, personal, and collective enhances or negatively affect agency and self-efficacy and explain suicidality and militancy. Using samples of Palestinian adolescents, we developed in the first study a measure for identity salience that included sub-scales for identity commitment and militancy.
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Erik Erikson is best-known for his famous theory of psychosocial development and the concept of the identity crisis. His theories marked an important shift in thinking on personality; instead of focusing simply on early childhood events, his psychosocial theory looks at how social influences contribute to our personalities throughout our entire lifespans. If life is to be sustained hope must remain, even where confidence is wounded, trust impaired. Erikson's stage theory of psychosocial development generated interest and research on human development through the lifespan. An ego psychologist who studied with Anna Freud, Erikson expanded psychoanalytic theory by exploring development throughout the life, including events of childhood, adulthood, and old age. Erik Erikson was born June 15, , in Frankfurt, Germany.