Permanent Magnet Design and Application Handbook : Lester R. Moskowitz :Permanent Magnet Design and Application Handbook, 2nd edition, is still the only comprehensive book covering the design and applications of permanent magnets. Since the last edition, major changes have occurred in materials and suppliers. This edition lists properties of over new materials. Written for the practicing engineer, not the physicist, its purpose is to pull together the diverse magnet information needed to design products rather than to present theory. Numerous tables, photos, and diagrams are used throughout. Also included are an international index of permanent magnet materials, a bibliography, and a glossary. Appendixes give demagnetization curves, magnetic properties, physical properties, and conversion factors.
ISBN 13: 9780894647680
A neodymium magnet also known as NdFeB , NIB or Neo magnet , the most widely used  type of rare-earth magnet , is a permanent magnet made from an alloy of neodymium , iron and boron to form the Nd 2 Fe 14 B tetragonal crystalline structure. The strength of neodymium magnets is due to several factors. Like other magnets, the neodymium magnet alloy is composed of microcrystalline grains which are aligned in a powerful magnetic field during manufacture so their magnetic axes all point in the same direction. The resistance of the crystal lattice to turning its direction of magnetization gives the compound a very high coercivity , or resistance to being demagnetized. The neodymium atom also can have a large magnetic dipole moment because it has 4 unpaired electrons in its electron structure  as opposed to on average 3 in iron. In a magnet it is the unpaired electrons, aligned so they spin in the same direction, which generate the magnetic field. This magnetic energy value is about 18 times greater than "ordinary" ferrite magnets by volume, and 12 times by mass.
A radio frequency-free RFF , analyzer-independent cell has been devised for electron-capture dissociation ECD of ions. The device is based on interleaving a series of electrostatic lenses with the periodic structure of magnetostatic lenses commonly found in a traveling wave tube. These spectra were readily obtained without recourse to a buffering gas or synchronizing electron injection with a specific phase of an RF field. The mass spectra produced with the modified instrument appear in all respects other than resolution and mass accuracy, which were limited by the mass spectrometer used to be at least as good for purposes of peptide identification as those recorded with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance FT ICR instruments; however, the effort and time to produce the mass spectra were much less than required to produce their FT ICR counterparts. Mass spectrometry is performed on a molecular sample in multiple, tandem stages to probe incisively into the complexities of molecular structure and to markedly increase specificity and sensitivity in analyses of complex mixtures of molecules. In CID, the internal energy of a cationic peptide-precursor is raised through gas-phase collisions between the latter and inert atoms or molecules; this thermal activation will in many instances induce a charge-directed cleavage of a peptide bond to produce a b -type or y -type fragment ion. Since thermal activation favors fragmentation pathways that require the least energy, labile post-translational modifications and, along with them, information crucial for understanding physiological processes are readily lost in CID analyses.
Permanent Magnet Design and Application Handbook
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