Libraries in the Ancient World - Ancient History EncyclopediaPart of a clay tablet, Neo-Assyrian. Credit: Public Domain. Located in Nineveh in modern day Iraq, the site included a trove of some 30, cuneiform tablets organized according to subject matter. Archaeologists later stumbled upon its ruins in the midth century, and the majority of its contents are now kept in the British Museum in London. Interestingly, even though Ashurbanipal acquired many of his tablets through plunder, he seems to have been particularly worried about theft.
History of books
In earliest times there was no distinction between a record room or archive and a library, and in this sense libraries can be said to have existed for almost as long as records have been kept. A temple in the Babylonian town of Nippur , dating from the first half of the 3rd millennium bc , was found to have a number of rooms filled with clay tablets, suggesting a well-stocked archive or library. Similar collections of Assyrian clay tablets of the 2nd millennium bc were found at Tell el- Amarna in Egypt. Ashurbanipal reigned — c. Many collections of records were destroyed in the course of wars or were purposely purged when rulers were replaced or when governments fell. Some favoured a seven-part classification, which included the Confucian classics, philosophy , rhymed work both prose and poetry , military prose, scientific and occult writings, summaries, and medicine.
The history of libraries began with the first efforts to organize collections of documents. Topics of interest include accessibility of the collection, acquisition of materials, arrangement and finding tools, the book trade, the influence of the physical properties of the different writing materials, language distribution, role in education, rates of literacy, budgets, staffing, libraries for specially targeted audiences, architectural merit, patterns of usage, and the role of libraries in a nation's cultural heritage, and the role of government, church or private sponsorship. Since the s, issues of computerization and digitization have arisen. Library history is the academic discipline devoted to the study of the history of libraries; it is a subfield of library science and of history. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing — the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer ,   some dating back to BC.
The history of books starts with the development of writing , and various other inventions such as paper and printing , and continues through to the modern day business of book printing. The earliest history of books actually predates what would conventionally be called "books" today and begins with tablets, scrolls, and sheets of papyrus. Then hand-bound, expensive, and elaborate books known as codices appeared. These gave way to press-printed volumes and eventually lead to the mass printed tomes prevalent today. Contemporary books may even have no physical presence with the advent of the e-book. The book also became more accessible to the disabled with the advent of Braille and spoken books.
The s Victoria L. King examines a decade of civil unrest and enlightenment in Europe.
big book of sign language